Sunday, May 24, 2020

Wife Of Bath Feminist Analysis - 1934 Words

While it may not be completely obvious as to exactly why or how Chaucer was a feminist through his Canterbury Tales, he had a way of showing his disapproval for the general and widespread anti-feminist mindset of the times, especially through The Wife of Bath’s prologue and tale, without shoving it in the faces of the people he was trying to prove wrong. Through this method of not making it completely obvious that he was a full-fledged feminist, he allowed for his average male readers to not be turned away from his stories and, instead, feel comfortable with their preconceived notions and allow themselves to take in everything the stories were about to say. From The Wife of Bath’s gap in her teeth, to her taking advantage of her many†¦show more content†¦Instead of telling us that women were the same as men, he showed us, and it was not in the way that most would expect. Reading these stories proves that, while we haven’t moved backwards in society in terms of womens equality, the people currently making the arguments on behalf of women have lost sight of what is actually causing any disparities between the two genders. Women do not have only 22 percent of the top positions in all job sectors simply because men think they are worse at using reason and therefore force them to be housewives. According to Chaucer’s use of the fictional Wife of Bath, it is the fact that certain women are able to take advantage of the so-called female trait of â€Å"sensuality† in their husbands. They use their own body and sexuality to lure the so-called intelligent men into being a slave to their own sexual desires. This exploitation of men may be the very thing that anti-feminists of that time (and now) use to prove their point against females. But, as Kenneth Oberembt puts it, â€Å"... what seems in her treatment of her husbands to be exploitation of or capitalization upon their debt to her is actually the imposition of justice upon five male impersonators whose outward Masculinity masks inward Femininity† (Oberembt 296-297). If, in this case, â€Å"femininity† is synonymous with put ting sensuality over reason, which, in Chaucer’s day, it was, then AlisonShow MoreRelatedFeminist Analysis Of The Wife Of Bath 1419 Words   |  6 PagesFeminism in the Wife of Bath The story of the Wife of Bath provides an insight to the role women were expected to play during the late middle ages. In the Prologue, Alice narrates her story guided by her life experience and religious beliefs. Alice is a reformed woman who goes against the patriarchal community’s expectation of women being suppressed by their men (Carter, 309). According to Kittredge (440), the wife of bath contradicts the church’s expectation that the wife should be loyal and holyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Wife Of Bath 1660 Words   |  7 PagesThe Canterbury Fails: An Analysis of Misogyny in the Wife of Bath’s Tale At first glance, you wouldn’t think that the Wife of Bath’s tale is anything other than feminist. She is, undeniably, the only non-religious female character in The Canterbury Tales and therefore is the only character who is approached from a point of view that was generally uncommon. We don’t have many— or even any, as far as I’m aware— pieces of medieval literature written by or for women or with a main female protagonistRead More Chaucers Canterbury Tales Essay - Women in The Wife of Bath1433 Words   |  6 PagesWomen in Chaucers The Wife of Bath Chaucers The Wife of Baths Prologue and Tale is a medieval legend that paints a portrait of strong women finding love and themselves in the direst of situations. It is presented to the modern day reader as an early tale of feminism showcasing the ways a female character gains power within a repressive, patriarchal society. Underneath the simplistic plot of female empowerment lies an underbelly of anti-feminism. Sometimes this is presented blatantlyRead More Chaucers Canterbury Tales - Wife of Bath - Feminist or Anti-feminist?1451 Words   |  6 Pagesfact that the Wife of Bath herself does seem to behave in the manner women are accused of behaving by the anti-feminist writers, it is not impossible that the Wife of Baths Prologue could be considered a vehicle for the anti-feminist message under the guise of a seeming feminist exterior, since her confession is frequently self-incriminating (e.g. her treatment of her husbands, her tendency to swere and lyen) and demonstrates the truth of the claims made by the anti-feminists even while sheRead MoreThe Wife Of Bath, By Geoffrey Chaucer Essay1487 Words   |  6 Pageswere subverted into a secondary class position that deprived them of agency and sexual satisfaction. Throughout Geoffrey Chaucer’s â€Å"Canterbury Tales,† the Wife of Bath provides didactic social commentary on the discrepancies between marriage and virginity and expounds the idea of giving sovereignty to women in relationships. Although the Wife of Bath is portrayed and characterized to some antifeminist stereotypes, her fervent and unorthodox commands enrich the reasoning behind her sexual voraciousness:Read MoreSex in The Canterbury Tales Essay937 Words   |  4 Pagesmarital bond of â€Å"making love† makes evident Chaucer’s skewed views of love and marriage with underlying tones of misogyny. He expresses these views throughout the work, however, the theme of love and sex is most evident in the sub-stories of The Wife of Bath and The Miller’s Tale. Chaucer breaks the topic of sex into two basic parts: carnality and romanticism. Although carnal love is a controversial topic, Chaucer dives into the subject by creating characters with ferocious appetites for sex and theRead MoreThe Wife Of Bath s Prologue1134 Words   |  5 PagesThe Wife of Bath uses bible verses in â€Å"The Wife of Bath’s Prologue.† Further, she employs the verses as an outline of her life to find reason in God to justify her actions. Nevertheless, the purpose of the verses differs within each stanza of the poem. The Wife of Bath is a sexually promiscuous, lustful, and manipulative woman. She marries men one after the other as they get older and die. In order to combat and overthrow the speculation and criticism being thrust upon her by societal norms becauseRead MoreThe Wife Of Bath, By William Chaucer2261 Words   |  10 Pages183). The Wife of Bath is portrayed as a very flamboyant and domineering character. She enjoys things such as romanc e, traveling, and talking. The Wife of Bath is a feminist who depicts through her tale her radical belief that women should have dominion over their husbands. As shown in the opening quotation, the Wife of Bath is not afraid to admit that she had experienced five marriages. The Wife of Bath’s radical beliefs are demonstrated through the phylogeny in â€Å"The Wife of Bath Prologue andRead MoreChaucer s The Man Of Law s Tale1269 Words   |  6 Pagessame decade when Chaucer likely wrote the Wife of Bath‘s Tale, England was going through a large political and social change. The high profile abduction and marriage of Sir Thomas West’s daughter, Eleanor, touched off a reform of statutory law regarding raptus, commonly referred to as the 1382 Statute of Rapes (Bovaird-Abbo). The law established patriarchal control over female sexuality by devaluing consent and de-emphasizing sexual assault (Edwards). The Wife begins her tale by depicting the goldenRead MoreRole Of Women During The United States1082 Words   |  5 PagesStephanie Vissering British Literature 1 Professor Stanley September 27, 2014 Critical Analysis Essay: Role of Women The role of women in the United States has changed dramatically in the last couple of decades. For one, women have taken on responsibilities outside the home, such as joining the paid workforce. While women made up only about one third of the workforce in 1969, women today make up half of the paid workers in the US. Women are also stepping up to lead the country as well as making

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Comparison Of Utilitarianism And Deontology - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1501 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/08/08 Category Ethics Essay Level High school Tags: Utilitarianism Essay Did you like this example? Utilitarianism vs Deontology Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that the best action is the one that maximizes utility, (Wikipedia.com, Utilitarianism). This is stating that it is morally good to use human lives if there is a greater good is the result. An example of this would be getting an abortion. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Comparison Of Utilitarianism And Deontology" essay for you Create order Utilitarianists believe that committing an abortion is morally okay as long as it leads to a good result for the majority, (iep.utm.edu, Act and Rule Utilitarianism). Also, utilitarianist reject moral codes or commands that are considered taboo that is based on customs, traditions, or orders given by leaders or supernatural beings, ( iep.utm.edu, Act and Rule Utilitarianism). Instead, they prefer a positive contribution to human beings. Another example of utilitarianism is eliminating certain people and saving valuable resources for other people that will benefit from them. This is also known as rationing, and is stated as unavoidable because the needs for it are limitless, (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, Ethics and rationality of Medicine). For instance, a person is considered brain dead and has little to no chance at recovering can provide about ten organs and at the same time is not using up valuable resources. Recently in the news, there have been numerous reports from Iceland that doctors there have discovered a cure for Down Syndrome, (cbsnews.com, Down Syndrome Disappears). Upon closer examination, it has been discovered that doctors have not cured Down Syndrome, but they have killed all those unborn babies who they believe will be born with the disease. These doctors have been using prenatal testing to determine if the unborn baby will get this genetic disease or not. According to recent data studies, the United States has a sixty-seven percent termination rate, and Denmark is ninety-eight percent rate, (cbsnews.com, Down Syndrome Disappears). A utilitarianist would believe that aborting these unborn babies with defects is for the greater good. This is because utilitarianist believes those born with these genetic defects are draining valuable resources, and in certain situations, those resources would be limited and should not be wasted on defective people. So, the death of the unborn is being used to achieve the greater good. Another view of this the practice of genocide, deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those apart of a particular ethnic group or nation, (Wikipedia.org, Genocide definitions). Not only is a certain group being targeted, but its also a group that requires more protection for those with this disability. The complete opposite of utilitarianism is Deontology. Deontology is The study of the nature of duty and obligation, (wikipedia.com, Deontological Ethics). Meaning it is never morally correct to use a human being only as a means to a further end. For instance, each and every human life, no matter the stage of development or condition the person is in, it is inherently valuable. As human beings, we are rational with a free choice who prefer to not be used as tools for someone elses purpose. Kants theory states Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never merely as a means, but always at the same time as an end, (link.springer.com, Abstract). Kant is simply suggesting that if his Principle of Humanities were followed, the world would be perfect. Principle of Humanities is the study aspects of humanity and culture, (Humanities, en.wikipedia.org). This is stating that we can never use human beings as a means to an end. Meaning we as humans should never use one another as a tool. But, we can use people generally under certain circumstances. An example of this would be asking someone to borrow twenty dollars and giving them the exact reason why you would be borrowing. For instance, Asking a parent for twenty-dollars to put gas in your car is a great example to explain the Principle of Humanities. If we apply deontology to the issue of killing unborn children that are prone to down syndrome, we see that neither side is morally permissible to treat one another as a means to an end. We humans should always recognize the person, born or unborn. The act of killing an innocent child because of what genetic disformity it will have is clearly treating oneself as a means to an end, as the woman carrying the unborn child as a means to end the babys life to save herself from having to take care of it once it is born, or as a way to save money from having to pay to deal with this kind of special needs child. Then the mothers life becomes a means to an end and that is wrong. We as a society do not allow a woman to be this irresponsible to end a human life just because of the troubles it could cause them mentally and financially. Also, doctors should be involved in the decision making because an abortion can cause harm to a womans health, ( https://www.bbc.co.uk,Safety of Women). Doctors u se to take the Hippocratic oath, stating I will not give a woman an abortive remedy, (www.medicinenet.com, Classic Hippocratic Oath). Doctors are meant to cure and heal the sick, not to kill human beings. For the issue of killing an innocent baby born with Down Syndrome, I argue that we should not kill the innocent baby to benefit someone else. First, I believe it is wrong to use a human being that has not even had a chance to live, for parts. Even if the person is not fully grown or harmed in any way. There is no price that compares to a humans life. Utilitarians do not view life this way, they see humans as a resource to get what they want. Those who need help the most should not be killed and used, they deserve to live and be protected. Second, a prenatal test does not guarantee that the child will have Down syndrome, it is just showing if the risk is high or low, (cbsnews.com, Down Syndrome Disappears). If the unborn child ends up not having Down Syndrome, then the abortion was performed for no reason. Lastly, a doctor cannot be one-hundred percent sure that the unborn baby has any kind of disease until it is born. Therefore, killing an innocent an possibly unharmed by genetics ch ild is wrong. When a woman is told her child could possibly be born with a genetic disorder, she should be fully informed on the causes that could happen to the baby and herself. Especially her health if the doctor is trying to convince to have an abortion. An abortion can have a psychological and emotional impact on a womans body, (www.labroots.com, Affects the Woman). Therefore, Doctors have to give the woman consent. Meaning the woman has to be fully aware of what could happen to her body and the unborn child. Doctors are known for not telling all the side affects of procedures or medication when giving them to their patient. So, I will not allow myself to undergo an abortion just because my child would be born with a genetic disorder. This is because there is a chance of infertility, or perforate the lining of my uterus, and that can cause infection and even sepsis,(www.labroots.com, Affects the Woman). There is such thing as an non-voluntary euthanasia, and this includes abortion, (https://www.life.org.nz, Abortion/Euthanasia). These two types of murder are morally wrong, and to this day are being debated as to what life is said to be. Euthanasia targets groups such as people that are sick, disabled, and old. In Iceland, unborn children are being killed for having a genetic disease called Down Syndrome, (cbsnews.com, Down Syndrome Disappears). Citation Page Atwell, John E. The Principle of Humanity. SpringerLink, Springer, 1 Jan. 1986, link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-009-4345-2_6. Deontological Ethics. Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 8 Nov. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deontological_ethics. Ethics Abortion: Safety of Women. BBC, BBC, www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/abortion/mother/safety.shtml Genocide Definitions. Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 8 Apr. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genocide_definitions. How an Abortion Affects the Woman | Videos. LabRoots, LabRoots, Inc., www.labroots.com/trending/videos/9914/how-abortion-affects-woman-s-body. Humanities. Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 8 Nov. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humanities. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, www.iep.utm.edu/util-a-r/. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, www.iep.utm.edu/util-a-r/. Lajka, Julian Quinones Arijeta. ?What Kind of Society Do You Want to Live in?: Inside the Country Where Down Syndrome Is Disappearing. CBS News, CBS Interactive, 14 Aug. 2017, www.cbsnews.com/news/down-syndrome-iceland/. Medical Definition of Hippocratic Oath. MedicineNet, www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=20909. The Abortion/Euthanasia Connection. Impact of Euthanasia on the Family | The Life Resources Charitable Trust, www.life.org.nz/abortion/abortionkeyissues/euthanasialink/. Utilitarianism. Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 4 Nov. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utilitarianism

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The chief object of satire in ‘Gulliver’s Travels’ is Gulliver himself Free Essays

Frequently, at the time of writing, literature was used as a political tool. It was used to send messages, make people think, and to make subversive criticism of monarchy, political parties, or religious factions. To do this effectively, the author uses much satire and irony throughout the novel. We will write a custom essay sample on The chief object of satire in ‘Gulliver’s Travels’ is Gulliver himself or any similar topic only for you Order Now The whole of Gulliver’s Travels is ironical. The Englishman in the strange land surrounded by miniature beings is no more than an outsider. In the first book, the reader sees themselves as one of these miniature beings. In the second book Gulliver is overwhelmingly human, with human weakness, distorting the truth, and human strengths, the positive oration. In the last book the situational satire moves beyond our feeling comfortable with it. In this book there is a complete transposition of horse and man. We see a civilisation that is pure and rational. Fraud, deceit, illness, or greet have not influenced it. Jonathan Swift writes of all social injustices and personal discomfort. Often the writing is with biting sarcasm but sometimes with violent explosions of anger, frequently with quiet ridicule. However he does this, the intention is the same and he urges the reader to really think about the effect of these views. The author intends that even the most far-fetched of his characters is meant to remind the reader of human weaknesses; lust, barbarism, pride and conceit. Often, Swift gives the reader direct comparisons. Two good examples of these are the people in the Court at Lilliput and their antics to procure promotion, and the people in the Academy at Lagado and their time consuming and worthless research. As the reader travels through each book the humanity becomes more degenerate and despicable and the reader is left to face himself or herself in the Yahoo, whereas the well-bred horse portrays the superior, sensitive, intelligent and virtuous characteristics. In the world of Lilliput we view with some amusement how meaningless the lives at court are. The ceremonies become silly, the awarding of honours meaningless, and the political differences completely comic when we consider such rivalry over which end an egg is eaten from. The whole ‘seriousness’ of Lilliput is reduced to merely a sideshow where the reader sees the action for what it really is; nonsense. An alternative environment, that is Brobdingnag, suggests a complete contrast. The tiny become giants and we see things from exactly the opposite perspective. The close-up pictures of skin, nipples and food repulse the reader and we are left to question how we judge beauty and elegance. Other people become physically unattractive to Gulliver in Brobdingnag, just as he himself became socially and intellectually unattractive in Lilliput. In the former, the characters and ridiculed, in the latter it is a society as a whole which is held up to the ridicule. Ironically, now Gulliver is twelve times smaller, it is his people who are ridiculed by the King of Brobdingnag, just as he, Gulliver, has ridiculed the antics of the Lilliputians. Books one and two reverse the perspectives completely. Gulliver is a Brobdingnagian in Lilliput. Here among miniature men he witnesses their spite and envy. Contrary to this, Gulliver is a Lilliputian in Brobdingnag and witnesses, despite his fears, the generosity and benevolence of the giants. Indeed it is only in this book where Gulliver holds a tender relationship with Glumdalclitch, in an ‘Alice in Wonderland’ kind of way. The use of the sizing up and down by a factor of twelve demonstrates the inconsequence of size and focuses us back to the fact that we are what we believe, not how we eat or live in physical term. Only wisdom, integrity, honesty and loyalty are independent of size. In book three Swift turns his attention to these virtues or lack of them. The focus of Laputa is intellectual and cognitive. In book three the reader needs to consider four main areas of satire. Swift attacks the false learning and bizarre research by making the projectors eccentric and obsessive. He uses the oppression of Balnibari by Laputa to remind the reader of Anglo-Irish issues. He refers to unrewarded efforts and political corruption and even the desire for eternal life by using the Struldbuggs. In the fourth book the reader is given a contrast, awful in its extremities. The human Yahoo with its bestiality is compared to the horse-like Houhunhnms who display virtues far above those observed in human society. The satire in this book is aimed at the Yahoos: Swift uses them as a device to explain how awful the human race really is. The comparisons are individual and in political groups. The comparisons are frequently odious, and in some cases indecent. Swift uses all of skills in his power to demonstrate the gross behaviour or the human being. Gulliver himself plays a more prominent part in Books one and two. He is treated ceremoniously and with high regard by the Lilliputians, and with affection by the Brobdingnagians who regard him almost as an interesting pet. The high regard held by the Lilliputians is not seen in book three where the Laputans quite simply ignore him. The only interaction he has in book three is with the academics of Lagardo, and then only to demonstrate the magical understanding these people seem to have of life and logic. By book four, Gulliver is looked upon suspiciously, almost with disgust as he is regarded as a kind of Yahoo. Gulliver is portrayed as an honest, educated man determined to earn a living as a ship’s surgeon at sea. He is philosophical about the adventures and mishaps he encounters. He faces the new and wonderful people with genuine interest and relays details refreshingly and without malice. It is Gulliver’s attention to detail with gives the reader an insight into the wonderful worlds that Gulliver visits. We see, hear and experience through Gulliver’s senses. It is this which helps us to decide very effectively about Gulliver’s personality, his likes and dislikes, his joys and fears, his morality and political preferences. Gulliver has a sense of honour; he has left his family in order to provide for them. He is reminded of his oath to the Emperor and feels embarrassed when he is publicly displayed. His respect for royalty is witnessed with his dealings with the princess. Gulliver gently kisses her hand and bends low. This is linked with his sense of patriotism; for Gulliver, England is best. When he explains to the King about England, he tends to ignore the weaknesses of the English system of law and government. We know Gulliver is interested by politics, frequently holding conversations on biased appointments, irrelevant wars and dishonest elections. We also learn he has anti-militaristic views and is especially critical of people who fight simply for money. Yet despite this view we learn that Gulliver himself must have been trained to use hand sword, staff and pistols because he uses all these effectively on his journeys. Gulliver is above all else a good conversationalist, always ready to ask and answer questions, he has an enquiring mind and is keen to learn. This is evidenced by his learning new languages, his ability to make accurate measurements and his interest in history. Gulliver takes easily to all spheres of society, whether it be Emperor or King, tradesman or servant. He is always ready to give helpful advice and help with problems where he thinks it will be valued. If the reader has one criticism of Gulliver, it is that he does not seem to have deep affection for his wife and child. The reader is told in book four ‘I left my poor wife big with child’ and when he returns home she kisses him and Gulliver is appalled, ‘having not been used to the touch of that odious animal for many years’. Indeed, he clearly leaves the adventures for a warm relationship with the inhabitants of his stable. About his groom, Gulliver says ‘I feel my spirits revived by the smell he contracts in the stable’. Gulliver is used as narrator; his view is innocent, unemotional, clearly focused and unambiguous. At the same time as the observations we are allowed an insight into Gulliver’s (or Swift’s) opinions. Gulliver, educated and rational, inspires out confidence from the first. He supplies the reader with detailed observations that add to the verisimilitude of the plot. Generally he portrays the scene in a positive light, and wishes to be perceived in the same way; an example of this is when Gulliver displays his clemency by sparing the ruffians and is commended for his actions at court. Gulliver has impeccable and genteel manners, made laughable by the differences in size in both Lilliput and Brobdingnag. Swift uses Gulliver as an example of a ‘good’ human being, but throughout the book we are continually asked to question how good human beings really are. Gulliver horrifies the King with the secret of gunpowder yet is horrified that promotions in Lilliput rely on whether the applicant has gymnastic skills. In Book four it is Yahoo skins Gulliver uses for his canoe not the horse skins in common use by his civilisation. Swift uses Gulliver to deny accusations or to embarrassingly embellish an argument only to give us an even clearer understanding of the human frailties being portrayed. So the ‘innocent’ Gulliver is used as a catalyst to allow the reader a deeper understanding of issues. An example of this is clothing, which is all that distinguishes Gulliver from the Yahoo. Gulliver is used to deliver a technique or verbal irony. In Book one, we are told of the Emperor’s qualities, all of which are the opposite of George’s characteristics. In Book two Gulliver’s praise of his country is overexaggerated, and therefore lacks credibility. Very often one seemingly credible paragraph is followed by another, which makes us reconsider what we have already read. This is a particular device in Book four which engages the reader to reflect upon what they have read. An example of this is when Gulliver explains what horses are used for in England, and in doing so, shocks the Houyhnhnms. Gulliver is also used to shock and embarrass the reader. Gulliver urinates and moves his bowels all in graphic detail. He describes his being stripped naked and riding upon one of the nipples of a Maid of Honour. He describes the texture of skin and obscene eating habits in magnified detail and culminates in a graphic portrayal of the yahoos. Swift makes us stop to reflect upon the unspoken natural moments of our lives which link us to animals more than we care to admit. Indeed most readers identify, as Gulliver did, with the Houyhnhnms. This must be the absolute irony, as irony is impossible in the Houyhnhnms’ society because ‘the thing which is not’ is not meant as a deception. In book four the satirical ingredient is sarcasm and the grey ‘master’ frequently uses this. He describes the Yahoo as ‘a sort of animal’. How to cite The chief object of satire in ‘Gulliver’s Travels’ is Gulliver himself, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Pride and Prejudice Research Paper free essay sample

During Jane Austen’s time, in the early 1800’s, women were around to be married off, bear children, and cater to their man. Men were meant to work and instruct their women, and the more money you had, the more respected you were. A woman’s goal in life was to marry higher than her class, and social status was everything. History often has a way of repeating itself, whether that history is bad or good, and Austen was not oblivious to this fact. She created a novel to portray the ways of her time, and to appropriately criticize her era where criticism was due. Austen’s Pride and Prejudice effectively opposes the conservative views of her time through her diction and plot throughout the novel in order to inform readers of the idiocy of acting in a non-progressive manner. The point of view in Pride and Prejudice is free indirect discourse; the story is told through Elizabeth, but not in first person. We will write a custom essay sample on Pride and Prejudice Research Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As a result, the events in the novel lack much drama or emotion. According to Maria Rosa Menocal on JSTOR, â€Å"The atmosphere is intellectual and cold, and there is not much detail or warmth throughout the novel. The darkness and bland mood that results from Austen’s use of free indirect discourse can be a representation of Austen’s negative opinion towards what is going on in the novel. Austen obviously disagrees with the conservative values of her era, and finds it repulsive to look for marriage or any kind of fulfillment based on money or social class. The actions and events in the novel derive from the opinions, ideas, and attitudes of the characters and their society, which essentially advances the plot of the novel. The emotions in the novel are open for interpretation by the audience, since they are not expressed to readers directly. Austen’s brilliance is revealed in her novel, as she is able to relay such a complex message to her audience while still using such simplistic style. The way Austen starts her novel is almost enough to prove that Pride and Prejudice is in fact a progressive novel. The novel starts out, â€Å"It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife† (3). According to The Literature Network website, â€Å"In this statement, Austen has cleverly done three things: she has declared that the main subject of the novel will be courtship and marriage, she has established the humorous tone of the novel by taking a simple subject to elaborate and to speak intelligently of, and she has prepared the reader for a chase in the novel of either a husband in search of a wife, or a women in pursuit of a husband. † Austen’s use of sarcasm and satire in this opening statement already enables readers to know that she is taking an opposing stance on conservatism and the way that things are â€Å"supposed to be. The first line sets the mood and easily defines the author’s purpose for the rest of the novel. Austen is against the emphasis on man in his social environment rather than in his individual conditions, and this is clear to readers from the beginning just by reading the very first sentence. Although the vast majority of the cha racters in the novel have a conservative view on life, Austen’s indirect criticism of these characters actually proves that she does not agree with them, therefore making her literary work progressive. Elizabeth’s mother, Mrs. Bennet can arguably be considered one of the most conservative characters in the novel. At the beginning of the novel, Mrs. Bennet excitedly reports to her husband, â€Å"A single man of large fortune; four or five thousand a year. What a fine thing for our girls! † (3). At this point in the novel, Mrs. Bennet knows absolutely nothing about this man that she is more than willing to let one of her daughters go off with, other than his income and the existence of his wealth; yet she is still certain that it is a fantastic idea for one of her daughters to end up with him. It is extremely relevant that Mrs. Bennet pays no mind to which daughter should be with him- it simply does not matter to her. She takes no time to think of which daughter may like him best or if any of them will even like him at all. She is primarily concerned with the surface level issues of her society, and the importance of marrying well in society without regard to the compatibility of the two people. All that matters to Mrs. Bennet is social ranking, wealth, and marriage. While these are all extreme conservative views, Austen is actually mocking Mrs. Bennet with the exaggerative manner in which she has Mrs. Bennet go about life. Austen describes Mrs. Bennet as â€Å"a woman of mean understanding, little information, and uncertain temper. When she was discontented she fancies herself nervous. The business of her life was to get her daughters married; its solace was visiting and news† (4). A woman of â€Å"little information† can only mean a woman without much of a brain or smarts. The fact that Austen would describe a character with such conservative views as an ignorant being proves that Austen’s goal of Pride and Prejudice was to stray away from conservative teachings and move forward in a progressive manner. The idea of marrying for love versus money majorly comes into play throughout this novel. It can definitely be argued that this is indeed a conservative novel because almost everyone’s intentions throughout the story are to marry for convenience, wealth, and social status. However, it can also be argued that Austen’s exact opinions and viewpoints are expressed through Elizabeth’s actions and beliefs. A well-known and respected literary critic of Austen, Claudia L. Johnson, explains, â€Å"In all of Austen’s novels, but especially Pride and Prejudice, pursuing happiness is the business of life† (349). Elizabeth is one of the few characters to actually realize that she does not want a life of convenience or wealth- she just wants to be happy. This stance is very different from most of the opinions of those around her during her time period. In a Jane Austen magazine, author Laura Boyle states in her article, â€Å"In the first volume, Darcy is â€Å"bewitched† by Elizabeth Bennet, but in the second he loses her. The third volume starts with his coming to a mature love for her and he wins his bride. Austen does not show us romantic tenderness in Pride and Prejudice from Elizabeth for much of the novel. † The action of Mr. Darcy â€Å"losing† Elizabeth is a very non-conservative one. In an ideal conservative situation, a man of wealth would never, under any circumstance, lose any woman, and especially one that he is actually interested in. By the end of the novel, Elizabeth does indeed marry Mr. Darcy for nothing other than love, and complete happiness has been achieved through true love and feelings, which is a very progressive notion. Essayist Diana Francis of Ball State University reflects about the ending of Pride and Prejudice, â€Å"Austen means to critique the shallow definition of a suitable marriage, one in which love or even compatibility plays no part, and makes the statement that wealth certainly does not necessarily equate to manners, intelligence, or class. † Before Elizabeth really knew Mr. Darcy or had any feelings for him, she denied his marriage proposal and wanted no part of it. It was not until she truly wanted to be with him and developed deep feelings for him that the marriage worked out and was able to take place. The fact that Austen would not let the most sensible character of the novel, Elizabeth, marry until she wanted to shows the audience where she stands on marriages occurring for anything other than love, which is a very progressive take on the matter. Other types of marriage, such as marriages out of convenience or sole sexual attraction are also addressed in the novel. Although the audience knows almost nothing of how Mr. and Mrs. Bennet got together, it can be inferred by their conversations at the beginning of the novel that their marriage was similar to the relationship between Lydia and Wickham. Mr. Bennet married a woman that he found sexually attractive while overlooking the fact that she was just a plain stupid woman. At the beginning of the novel, Mr. Bennet says, â€Å"You and the girls may go, or you may send them by themselves, which perhaps will still be better, for as you are as handsome as any of them, Mr. Bingley might like you best of the party† (3). The only compliment that Mr. Bennet ever really gives his wife is about her looks, which is a very superficial and surface level thing. He has nothing other than that to really explain why he married her or why he is still with her. She provides him with satisfaction of his sexual needs, and he provides her with stability; alas, a marriage of convenience and sexual attraction. Paula Cohen says in her scholarly journal, â€Å"Although Austen gently parodies the young girls awkward entree into her role, she clearly supports, in this novel, the conventional initiation process as proper to female development. Indeed, the brunt of the novels satire is directed at those who, as poor role models, would not seek either wittingly or unwittingly to thwart her progress or pervert it to some other end than that of being pleasing and useful to the man whom she will eventually marry. Austen is very much against women making their life goal to get married and please a man. She mocks and indirectly criticizes every female character in the novel that falls under this category, thus revealing her opinion on the subject matter. Mrs. Bennet’s favoritism towards Lydia, the most out of control and foolish of the sisters, and her comments on how she was once as â€Å"full of life† as Lydia reveals the similarities between them. Mr. Bennet’s comment on Wickham being his favorite son-in-law is also significant in the sense that similarities can be revealed about them as well. Mr. Bennet’s self-realization near the end of the novel when he discovers that his lack of attention towards his family had led them to be the people that they had turned into came too late to change anything. Overturning the conservative values of her time, Austen shows that the man will not always â€Å"save† the woman- men can also do wrong and portray a weak character, and are just as likely to mess up as a woman. It is no coincidence that the two characters presumed to be two of the dumbest characters in the novel would end up together. It is also rather interesting and no coincidence either that one of the two protagonist characters of the story, Mr. Darcy, was inspired by a man that Austen knew in real life. According to the New York Times, Ben Sisario reports, â€Å"A portrait of the man believed to have inspired the character of Mr. Darcy in Jane Austen’s â€Å"Pride and Prejudice† is going on sale†¦ Thomas Lefroy†¦ born in Ireland, met Austen in 1796, when both were in their early 20s. They had a flirtation, and Lefroy, whose family was poor†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Although this man that Austen met came from no wealth, he was still the inspiration for the character with the most sense and progressive views in the novel, therefore revealing to the audience that Austen had no regards for wealth or superficial values in a relationship, thus enabling her to go against the conservative views of her time yet again. Because Elizabeth is so sharp and such an observer of other people, she recognizes her mothers silliness and vows to never have the same life or â€Å"love† as her parents. This stubbornness of Elizabeth’s, however, is paradoxically a trap in itself; by going solely by her own observations and always against and refusing the opinions of others, Elizabeth threatens her future life and love with Mr. Darcy. Critics in favor of a â€Å"conservative† Austen can easily say that this particular point of the plot of the novel represents an opposing view to progressivism, since when a woman finally speaks up and makes her own decisions, she messes up her life and ruins her own happiness. Another well-known and respected literary critic, Marilyn Butler, believes, â€Å"The more one examines the novel the more difficult it becomes to read into it authorial approval of the element in Elizabeth which is rebellious† (321). While this may seem true on the surface, there is a deeper message here to read into. Although Austen was writing her novel to attack conservatism, she was still well aware that most likely no change would come from her writings or beliefs. Her time period was not really prone to taking a progressive view on anything, and making any kind of a step in the direction towards a freer and non-conservative life style would probably not happen. Austen portrays this realization through the slight surrender of Elizabeth when she accepts Mr. Darcy’s marriage proposal. However, this was not a full surrender, as Elizabeth only accepted his proposal because she truly loved him and wanted to be married to him. The act itself of Elizabeth and Mr.

Friday, March 27, 2020

Generally People Associate Raves(Underground Techno Parties) With Desi

Generally people associate raves(Underground Techno parties) with designer drugs like Ecstasy(MDMA), Speed(amphetamine) and other acids like LSD. These drugs are called the Techno Drugs for that reason and most of the time have uplifting and sensatory effects. To understand more clearly the relationship between the raves and these drugs, we first have to understand the philosophy behind the Techno era, and a little about the music. "Techno, can lift the spirit and become a new world of freedom and peace(D'Vox Magazine The first electronic music Magazine). Most raves are covered with propaganda about freedom, peace, spirituality and the like. It is no surprise why teens use these specific drugs at raves. The effects of E, are like a journey to another world, a world of happiness, love and euphoria (Ecstasy and Mental Health: Nerves or neurosis by Dr. Karl Jansen) These ravers, have many reasons to take E, for example The music lends itself to the intake of drugs, drugs are common in y outh culture, teens need energy to dance all night, the rave scene is bombarded with all kinds of E (Drug Information Database, www.pharmlink.org/designer/index.html/). The media has given E and the rave scene a bad reputation, since 30 years ago music has been greatly united with drugs. For example Weed and Rock in the 60's and acid in the 70's. (E for Ecstasy by Nicolas Saunders, ch.1) Ecstasy is just a hard and dangerous as weed, a drug that 1 out of every 3 highschool students in the American population have had experiences with. (Drug Information Database, www.pharmlink.org/stats/index/main.html/) Why is E judged so harshly when the ecstasy related deaths can not compare with those related with legal drugs just like tabacco and alcohol. (E for Ecstasy by Nicolas Saunders, ch.2) Of course the media has a lot to do with it, the media takes all the negative effects and doesn't include the positive ones. 29 volunteers where asked to assist Dr. Green, prominent doctor in charge of studies for the BMJ (British Medical Journal), in a study of the effects of E. (Readers Digest article by Russell Twisk editor-in-chief) Out of those 29 volunteers they all experienced, unpleasant experiences such as nausea, sweating and stiffing (Readers Digest by Russell Twisk). Although the volunteers felt undesirable symptoms, 18 of the volunteers experienced mood changes, to the best, and 23 of them went reported positive attitudes. 7 of my patients who experienced depression made more improvement with E, than with years of therapy and other anti-depressive drugs. (British Medical Journal by Dr. Green Hancock). Drugs are harmful to the human mind, and body in many ways, it is also capable of preventing the body, and mind in fully developing. There are many types of drugs, there are drugs that slow you down, drugs that speed you up, and hallucinogens. Hallucinogenic drugs are substances that distort the perception of objective reality. The most well-known hallucinogens include phencyclidine, otherwise know as PCP, lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly known as LSD or acid, and psilocybin, or magic mushrooms. Under the influence of hallucinogens, the senses of direction, distance, and time become disoriented. You see sound and hear light. These drugs can produce unpredictable, erratic, and violent behavior in users that sometimes leads to serious injuries or death. Drowning's, burns, falls, and automobile crashes have also been reported. Some physical risks include mangled, and unclear speech, decreased awareness of touch and pain, convulsion, coma, heart, and lung failure. Psychological risks associated with using hallucinogens is depression, anxiety, paranoia, confusion, loss of control, and flashbacks. Marijuana is chemotherapeutic drug. This means that it can be used to treat certain types of cancer. The point of these past sentences is to make a point, the point is that marijuana can't really affect the body of the abuser's body since it is widely used in the practice of medicine. The things that marijuana can do to the body is as follows: make the eyes red, cause brain damage, low oxygen supply to the heart, and there is a possibility that it may even cause lung cancer. Marijuana might not have any major long-term affects but it sure has its immediate affects. These are more signs of use than immediate affects. For example one

Saturday, March 7, 2020

The Year 1000 essays

The Year 1000 essays In the year 2000, advanced scientific knowledge and advanced technological change has had a significant effect on the way we live compared to our ancestors who lived in the year 1000. Today we live in an industrial and technological society versus the primarily agricultural society of the year 1000. We enjoy mass produced consumer products and a standard of living undreamed of in the year 1000. But perhaps most significant, in the year 2000 we live in an information age. With our many forms of communication such as telephones, pagers, cell phones, the internet, radio, television and satellites it is possible for a nomad in the Arabian Desert to be as informed as an investment banker on Wall Street. We live in a wired world or to use a phrase coined by Marshall Mcluhan, we live in a Global Village. In contrast, most people in the year 1000 lived in small villages, or Burhs, usually consisting of a couple of dozen homes surrounding the village green. For these people, their little vill age, or hamlet, was their whole world. Undoubtedly, there are many aspects of life from the year 1000 that we would find familiar. Amongst other things, the family unit has remained a staple of modern living. Although the daily lifestyle of each family member has evolved to fit modern society, families still live together with their biological mother and father subject to divorce or adoption. Traditionally passed on through the family units from generation to generation is religion. Religion is a major part of daily life in almost every culture, as it was in the year 1000. However, scientific advancement has replaced much of the unknown that used to be accredited to Gods work. Similar to modern economy, free enterprises triumphed and businesses expanded accordingly(p. 88). Similar to todays stock market, entrepreneurs of the year 1000 were investing their money in other businesses with excess capital: ...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Reinforced Concrete Beam Behavior in Bending Research Paper

Reinforced Concrete Beam Behavior in Bending - Research Paper Example ProcedureThe setup of the apparatus involved a beam that was in the machine with the gauge across the beam’s depth. It was loaded in flexure. The load in the concrete beam was increased uniformly from 0KN up to a load of 41.95KN. From the gauge reading taken, there was very little deflection at the beginning. The increase of the load was gradual. The beam first had a crack at the bottom when the load applied in the middle of the beam reached 10KN. There was a record of all gauge readings and deflections with each increment. Further increments of 2KN followed but with only the deflection readings recorded.   At the point where the beam deflection started increasing rapidly, the deflection gauge was removed. The beam was then loaded up to failure. The beam failed at 41.95 KN.The table below shows the results of the observations and readings from the gauge and applied load in the experiment.  DiscussionI. The development of cracksThe beam experience different loading conditio ns where the deflection on of the beam indicated the effect of the load on the beam. More increases to the load took the concrete beam to its elastic limit. Beyond the elastic limit, the beam experience permanent deformation. At a load of 10KN, the beam started developing cracks as it had reached its elastic limit. The cracked section demonstrates the behaviour of the material. It was elastic with light loads but with high loads, it became plastic and cracks started to appear.